From MUFON Annual 1983 UFO Symposium Proceedings, "UFOs: A Scientific Challenge"
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA'S STRAIGHT-LINE MYSTERY IN UFO SIGHTINGS
By Ann Druffel, SKYNET Director
ABSTRACT:A Southern California study of fifty-seven (57) UFO-related cases adds credence to the theory of orthoteny, first advanced by Aime Mchel in this study, thirty-five (55) other events, comprising three comparison groups not related to the original theory of orthoteny, were also plotted.Four (4) ancient Indian ritual sites were included to see whether orthotenic lines seem to have any possible relation to ley line phenomena.The two other comparison groups, i.e., fourteen (14) UFOs and seventeen (17) well-investigated events of interest to professional psychic researchers,were added to the study in order to demonstrate there random nature, as compared to the orthotenic (straight-line) groupings of UFO events.
INTRODUCTION: Our 1983 MUFON Symposium theme, "UFOs, a Scientific Challenge," incorporates within that simple phrase the difficulty with which each paper was prepared.UFOs do not easily lend themselves to scientific study.They appear when and where they choose, select their own time duration, and have not been publicly tracked by human observers for any meaningful length of time.Most frustrating of all, their sporadic appearances cannot be predicted, much less replicated.And the ability to replicate observations lies at the heart of science.
Here I offer some results of a study of Southern California UFO reports which researchers anywhere in the world can replicate with some time and effort.It may present a truly scientific way of studying UFO reports and, perhaps, even of predicting areas of future sightings.
The study includes fifty-seven (57) locations within an 18,000-square mile area of Southern California where UFO events were reported by citizens of average or above-average observing ability.These locations include twenty-seven (27) sites where CE Iand CE II events allegedly occurred, eight (8) sites of UFO landing reports and/or abduction scenarios, and thirteen (13) incidents of reported contact with "alien" entities during which no UFO-class vehicles were visible to the witnesses.Nine (9) additional cases of ufological content and high strangeness which, for one reason or another, did not fit into the other classifications comprised the fourth UFO group
The purpose of Hs study was to determine whether or not UFO sightings and entity reports in Southern California lay along orthotenic lines.My initial interest in this subject stemmed from two factors.First, for the past twenty-nine years in France, the United States, South America, the United Kingdom and other countries had found the straight-line phenomenon held true in their own areas.Second, I had accidentally discovered an orthotenic line, composed of six (6) points, during a study of local UFO sightings.This particular project involved plotting twenty-five (25) sighting locations on an aeromagnetic map of Los Angeles and Orange counties (Reference 1).At that time,I was not looking for straight-line phenomena, but rather correlations between UFO sightings and magnetic anomalies in earth terrain.
This accidentally-discovered straight-line stretched from Yorba Linda in the southeast section of Orange County into the city of Montrose n the northeast portion of the Los Angeles Basin.For the next several years I tried to find the time to continue the study in order to see whether other straight lines would appear from the plotting of the sites of other UFO CE II's and CE III's and landing reports or if additional reports would be found to lie along the Yorba Linda-Montrose line.A full study was time-consuming, and the opportunity to do it was not found until now.
To be specific, the terms "straight lines" or "orthotenic lines," as used in ufology, do not refer to physical markings in or on the earth, such as are found, for example, on the Plain of Nasca in Peru.A "straight (orthotenic) line" as used in this paper, is an imaginary line running through four or more specific sites on the earth's surface.The sites themselves are physical locations and, for the purpose of this research, were plotted on a map with various colored flags.The "lines" were indicated by stretching thin black yarn between the points on the map indicated by the flags, after careful alignment with a rigid, wooden yardstick determined that a straight line could be drawn connecting them.The width of the yam was equal to the distance of 1/5 mile on the map's scale.
It is hoped that other researchers in other parts of the United States and other countries will be encouraged to pursue the same simple, though time-consuming, steps described here, and that their findings can either replicate or disprove my results and tentative conclusions.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ORTHOTENY:The "straight-line mystery," as related to ufology, was first discovered by the French scientist, Aime Michel, a world-renowned researcher and a truly professional and scientific ufologist.Before 1954, like most students of UFOs, Michel was discouraged by the sporadic and unpredictable nature of UFO sightings.There was no data presented by the unidentified objects which could be scientifically studied and no material which could be replicated by researchers in various parts of the world.
In his book, FLYING SAUCERS AND THE STRAIGHT LINE MYSTERY, published in 1958, Michel explains that from mid-August 1954 to mid-November 1954, the situation changed dramatically(Reference 2).During those months, a series of sightings occurred in France and adjacent countries which he was able to plot on maps of the areas involved.The flap, as far as intensity and high-strangeness value of the sightings were unprecedented.
Michel found that sightings occurring as far apart as 700 miles were located along great-circle routes which, transferred onto flat maps of the areas involved, amounted to straight lines.He began his study by plotting five high-strangeness reports, all of which occurred on Friday, October 15, 1954.The sightings were in such widely separated points as South end in England, Calaisand Aire-sur-la-Lys in France, a site on Route N-68 close to the German border, and Po di Gnocca in Italy.Michel marked these five sightings on a globe of the earth and found that if a thread was stretched between the five points, that the thread extended in a great-circle line 700 miles long.When the same sightings were plotted on appropriate maps of the areas involved, adjusted to account for the slight curve of the earth over the 700 miles, the five points lay on a "straight line."
Thus Aime Michel' s technique of orthoteny was born.The word orthoteny is derived from the Greek adjective "orthoteneis" which means "stretched in a straight line."
Of course, a straight line can be drawn between any two points, but Michel, being a mathematician, was aware that a five point straight line between UFO sighting locations on the same date was far beyond coincidence.Through successive plottings of multi-sightings on other days during the French 1954 flap, Michel found many other multi-point straight lines, representinglocations of sightings in France and adjacent countries.
From these results, he developed a hypothesis that the UFOs might be using a grid work surveillance pattern during their appearances and were traveling or manifesting along straight lines because this was the most logical manner of surveillance.
Michel also found strong evidence of an additional phenomenon— at the intersection of these straight, the object sighted was invariably the class of UFO known as "cloud cigars."These huge cloud-shrouded oval forms, from which smaller glowing or metallic disks departed and to which (and into which) they returned, were always viewed, in their motionless mode, where two or more straight lines intersected at a sighting location.The most striking example of this phenomenon occurred on September 2, 1954 when nine multi-point straight lines of French UFO sightings intersected at Poncey, France (Reference 3)Michel theorized that the "cloud cigars" were aggregations of UFOs, in other words, a type of carrier-craft mechanism which provided a rallying point for small disks which performed the surveillance maneuvers along the grid work lines.As the years passed after Michel's initial study, the theory of orthoteny was argued pro and con in UFO literature (Reference 4).
Coral and Jim Lorenzen of the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) in Arizona found orthotenic lines in the United States and South America (Reference 5).Other researchers, notably Drs. David R. Saunders and Jacques Vallee added strength to the theory by plotting great-circle lines over portions of the United States and other countries, and publishing the results of their analyses in various articles and books (References 6 and 7).
Throughout these subsequent years of study, however, researchers (including Michel himself,had noticed that orthoteny did not hold true only for sightings involving one particular date (References 8 and 9).Orthotenic lines of UFO activity were found on which numerous sightings had occurred over a time span of many yearsThe most famous of these is BAVIC, originally a six-point line extending from Bayonne to Vichy, France.Although the six original sightings all occurred on September 24, 1954, subsequent study has revealed other cases of high strangeness occurring on other dates along the BAVIC line.In addition, it has been found that other remarkable phenomena sites, such as the location of Magdalenian cave art containing paintings of definite UFO shapes, lie along the BAVIC line (Reference 10).BAVIC, of course, has been extended, by research, far beyond its original Bayonne-Vichy limits and now constitutes a great circle line.
Therefore, Michel's first hypothesis that the straight-line mystery represented logical behavior of UFOs to manifest themselves along a grid work surveillance pattern on individual dates in time was refined in favor of a more substantial hypothesis.Some researchers now speculate that the terrain along the lines might, n some unknown way, allow UFOs to manifest to human witnesses or that the terrain in some way attracts UFOs or is somehow involved with their propulsive units.
Gradually, the theory of orthotenic lines has become less a matter of controversial discussion.Conversely, over the last ten years, the study of so-called "ley lines" has become popular.Ley line study indicates that the location of ancient sites of ceremonial and religious ritual, such as Stonehenge, lie along straight lines as well.This theory was first advanced by Alfred Watkins n the 1920s (Reference 11), but much of the credit for upgrading ley-line data is due to Paul Devereux, editor of the magazine THE LEY HUNTER A recent book by Devereux and lan Thomson postulates a UFO-ancient sites (leys) link (Reference 12).Evidence of this is not yet strong.There is no demonstrated proof that ley lines and orthotenic lines are in any way associated with each other, but the fact remains that UFOs, especially in the United Kingdom and some European countries, are seen over, or in the general area of leys (Reference 13).
The study of ley lines, however, is now well past the theory point.Evidence that ancient or prehistoric cultures built their important places of ceremonial worship along straight lines (or, in the case of the longer lines spanning more than one country such as those discovered by Michel, along great-circle routes), is frilly established.
One hypotheses which tries to explain ley lines states that these sites were chosen by ancient peoples because of some inherent telluric property of the terrain along which these ceremonial sites were built. The specific earth energy (or property) believed to be involved in ley lines and ley sites is not yet identified.
Ley lines have been demonstrated to exist on most continents.Numerous ancient cultures seem to have employed this principle.Even today, many of our more modern major sites of ritual (churches, mosques, synagogues, and other centers of metaphysical study) are built on ruins of ancient religious buildings and, therefore, still lie on ley lines.
During the past four years, through various coincidences, I became aware of four Southern California sites of ancient ceremonial interest, used long ago by members of various American Indian tribes.When I began my orthotenic study of Southern California UFO reports, these four Indian sites were included and plotted on the same map to see if their locations had any correlations with UFO reportsThese four sites became a comparison group in the study, along with two other comparison groups (see below), making a total of throaty-Fe (35) comparison cases to be plotted along with the fifty-seven (57) selected high-strangeness UFO reports.
PROTOCOL OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA ORTHOTENIC (STRAIGHT-LINE) STUDY: The UFO reports selected for plotting met the following criteria:
MAP USED IN STUDY:The primary map, on which the total of ninety-two (92) sites (including fifty-seven (57) UFO cases and thirty-five (35) comparison cases) were plotted, was a composite of six maps produced by the US Geological Survey of Denver, Colorado and Reston, Virginia, and the National Ocean Survey, Rockville, MarylandMost of the maps were made in 1957 and revised in 1978, the sole exception being made in 1958 and revised n 1969 .All had the same scale, 1:250,000.A mile was represented by one-quarter of an inchThe maps were topographic and, in the case of those including off-shore waters, bathymetric as well.
Six maps were necessary to the study in order to obtain the desired scale and territory of the Southern California area.The maps were, specifically:
The margins of each map were cut off, and the six maps were fitted together and secured with non-shiny Scotch tapeIt is a credit to the accuracy of the U.S. Geological Survey that the six portions interlocked perfectly, as far as freeways, major highways, waterways, reservoirs, topographic and bathymetric contours and other features necessary for site identification were concerned.
The finished map measured four and one-half (4 1/2) feet by five (5) feet and was mounted permanently on a cork wall.Flags of seven different colors were used for plotting the seven groups, as follows:red for landings and time lapse/ abduction scenarios, orange for close encounters, light blue for "entity" contacts, brown for the special class termed DIPs, pink for paranormal events, green for IFOs and navy blue for ancient Indian ceremonial sites.
SELECTION OF UFO CASES:In order to glean suitable reports for plotting In each of the categories, I combed my files, comprised of over 1000 Southern California reports from 1957 to the present;principally the SKYNET files beginning In 1965.All suitable reports which fit the criteria for each group and for which the exact address or location was readily available, were plotted.There were, of course, many dozens of other cases which fit the criteria In several of the groups but, in these, information on exact locations was not instantly available.These were left for a future study.
The SKYNET files are the result of a Los Angeles-based filter center and tracking system established in 1965.I have been the Project Co-ordinator for this system since its inception, and the great majority of reports received through SKYNET channels have come through my home.In all, since October 24, 1965 to the present, 708 reports have been logged on my own SKYNET report charts, and uncounted others have come through other SKYNET locations around the Los Angeles Basin and are in other researchers' files.
Of the 708 SKYNET cases, twenty-one (21) CE IIs and CE IIIs were used.The remaining six (6) were kindly provided byVince Uhlenkott, Idabel Epperson, Vance Dewey, and John de Herrera.In the "landing/abduction" category, seven (7) were SKYNET cases and one (1) was provided by Vance Dewey.In the "entity" category, eleven (11) cases were SKYNET with others provided by John de Herrera and Anita Furdek.In the DIPs group, all were SKYNET cases.
In the IFO category, thirteen (13) were SKYNET cases and one (l) was provided by John de Herrera.In the paranormal events category, nine (9) were provided by parapsychologist Raymond Bayless, four (4) came to light during investigation of SKYNET cases, three (3) were personally known to me, and one (l) was provided by Anita Furdek.Initial information on three of the four Indian sites came to my attention through Jamie Sams and Timothy Lee King.
PLOTTING TECHNIQUES:The plotting of all seven groups was done entirely at random, that is, no attempt was made to select cases which seemed as though they might fit into the already identified Yorba Linda-Montrose line or other lines as they emerged on the mapThe exact site (as described by the witnesses) which was associated with each report was located first in the Thomas Brothers Street Atlas of Los Angeles and Orange Counties, 1977 edition.On these maps the scale is one and seven-eighths inch (l 7/8") to a mile.Other sites not within these county boundaries were located in the Murray map of San Diego, where the scale is one and one-half(l 1/2) inch to one mile and on an Oeding Enterprises map of Palm Springs, which had a scale of approximately one and one-half (l 1/2)inch to one mileAll streets were marked on these smaller scale map sources so that precise location of each site was easily apparent.[An allowance of error of approximately 500 feet was allowed.]
The site locations, as determined by the smaller scale maps, were then transposed to the larger scale U.S. Geological map.Since this map's scale was the equivalent of one-fourth (1/4) inch to one mile, the plotting was a painstaking operation, due to the small areas involved.
The ninety-two (92) locations were plotted with as much precision as possible by their relationships to freeways, railroad tracks, major highways, rivers, other water- ways and reservoirs, airfields, etc., all of which were clearly marked on the U.S. Geological Survey map.I would estimate that the final plotting of each individual flag was done with an accuracy between 1/32) to 1/16 inch.Since the Geological Survey map's scale was 1/4 mile inch to a mile, we are left with a possible error of 1/8 to 1/4 mile for each plotted flag.
The four American Indian ritual sites were: Tahquitz Rock near Idyllwild; Eagle Rock in the city of Eagle Rock (Los Angeles 90041),Stony Point in Chatsworth, and Castle Rock inPark.Of these, Tahquitz Rock and Stony Point are protected by governmental authorities and are still generally in their primeval state.Eagle Rock and Castle Rock, being on or adjacent to private lands, are being encroached upon by human habitation, but still manage to maintain their historical interest and beauty.
When these four sites were plotted with navy blue flags, it became apparent that three of them, i.e., Tahquitz Rock, Eagle Rock and Stony Point, lay in a straight line across terrain one hundred and sixteen (116) air miles long.Castle Rock lay five and one-half (5 1/2) miles southwest of Stony Point.Although, for purposes of this study, three-point UFO related lines were ignored as coincidental, it was felt that it might be more than coincidental that three out of the four Indian sites in this study could be connected by a straight line of this length.This finding was accepted as preliminary evidence that these three Indian sites might form the equivalent of a "ley line" as found in other countries.
RESULTS OF STUDY AND UFOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE:After all of the fifty-seven (57) UFO-related sites had been plotted, a rigid wooden yardstick was used to determine which cases lay along straight-line routes. The criterion for ufological significance was four (4) or more sites of UFO significance lying in a straight line across the map. In all, sixteen (16) straight lines comprised of four (4) or more points were discovered.Of these sixteen lines, two (2) had seven (7) points, four (4) had six (6) points, three (3) had five (5) points and seven (7) had four (4) points.The sixteen (16) lines extended over varying distances, ranging from one hundred and twenty-eight (128) miles to twenty-four (24) miles.
In charting these lines, a deviation of five-eighths (5/8) of a mile was deemed acceptable, since in orthotenic studies deviations up to a kilometer on one side of a line was deemed a "good fit." If it is assumed that orthotenic or ley lines represent some type of earth energy, then logically there would be some width to the energy field involved.Therefore, an arbitrary figure of approximately 3,500 feet was judged reasonable for purposes of this study.Deviations of this distance, however, were rare, comprising no more than five to ten percent (5-10%) of the total plottings.
Of the sixteen (16) ufologically significant lines, three (3) had Indian sites lying upon them. The most striking line of Indian sites, i.e., Tahquitz Rock, Eagle Rock, and Stony Point, had three sites of ufological interest lying at various locations on it.[Even though groups of three UFO events in a line were otherwise ignored asinsignificant, this line was kept as possibly meaningful.]
RESULTS OF PLOTTING OF COMPARISON GROUPS:The addition of the remaining two comparison groups (IFOs and paranormal events), when plotted on the map, yielded interesting results.Except for those four instances where paranormal events had occurred at the same locations as UFO incidents, the pink flags had been expected to show non-correlation with the straight lines of ufological significance.However, of the total number of seventeen (17) paranormal events plotted, nine (9) lay on lines of ufological significance.Seven (7) others lay on lines of "combined interest" (see text below.)The one exception lay within a mile of an existing line.
The most surprising result of the study was the discovery that ten (10) of the IFO group (plotted with green flags) lay along lines of ufological significance.The remaining four (4) lay along lines of so-called combined interest.
"COMBINED INTEREST" LINES:In addition to the sixteen (16) lines of ufological significance (comprised of 4 to 7 points each), seven (7) additional lines were discovered on the map.None of these contained the required 4 or more ufological locations to fit into our protocol criterion of non-coincidence but six (6) out of seven (7) of these additional lines had four (4) or more points when the UFO sites, paranormal incidents, and Indian sites were combined on each.For the purpose of simplicity through out the rest of the text, we shall term the lines of ufological significance (four or more UFO-related points) as "major lines," and the lines of combined interest as "minor lines."The minor lines might be of possible interest to those researchers who are interested in the study of paranormal events and ley lines, as associated with some UFO reports.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NINETY-TWO SITES IN RELATIONSHIP TO MAJOR LINES:Summing up the statistical analysis of the ninety-two (92) plotted sites lying on straight lines discovered in this study, we will take the liberty of combining all seven groups of flags.It is apparent that a close fit of all but one flag out of 92, in spite of the fact that two entire groups of flags were not expected to fit at all, is more than coincidental. It seems possible that there is some relationship between the locations where UFOs closely approach witnesses and earth terrain where paranormal events, sites of ancient religious rituals, and gross misidentifications of conventional objects as UFOs are found.Therefore, combining all the flags plotted, we have the following count for the sixteen (16) major lines discovered during this study.Mileage is, of course, in air miles and does not take into account the contours of the terrain involved.
See Figure One for a map of Southern California, showing the approximate locations of each of these major lines.(Color slides will be shown at the 1983 MUFON Symposium showing their precise locations.)
Straight lines of less than ufological significance, but seemingly significant to research on orthotenic/ley lines and on relationship of UFO and paranormal events are given below.Mileage is also in air miles.
See Figure Two for a map of Southern California, showing the approximate locations of each of these lines.
Whether their tight fit indicates that these inadequately-investigated reports were indeed valid has not been established, due to the comparatively small number (9) of DIP reports plotted.It would be interesting to see further research in this area.
RANDOMLY-PRODUCED MAP COMPARED WITH MAP USED IN STUDY: In order to demonstrate that the twenty-three (23) major and minor straight lines found during this study were not coincidental, but rather indicated that some unknown phenomenon was at work, I followed Aime Michel's lead (Reference 17) and produced a pseudo-orthotenic map. Ninety-two (92) popcorn seeds were scattered over a flat board.This board was thirty-eight (38) inches wide and thirty (30) inches high, the same size as the area on the Geological Survey map on which the ninety-two (92) flags comprising the seven (7) groups had been plotted.(Although the Geological Survey map was four and one-half feet by five feet (4 1/2' x 5') as mounted, there were no readily available sightings to be plotted in the western one-third (1/3) and the northern one-fourth (1/4) of this larger wall map.
In order to preserve proper statistical coincidence, I colored thirty-five (35) of the seeds to represent the three (3) comparison groups in the study, i.e. the Indian sites, the IFOs and the paranormal events.Fifty-seven (57) of the seeds were left their normal color, representing the UFO-related groups.
I scattered the seeds randomly over the flat board and then set about trying to see how many straight lines of four (4) or more points emerged.The same permissible deviation limit (5/8 inch on one side) was employed.I also found that popcorn seeds arenot uniformly shaped, and finding the exact center of each was chancy.I estimated that the same accuracy limit in plotting each flag probably applied, i.e. 1/32" to 1/16"), as on the actual Geological Survey map.
Working among flags stuck at the site of each popcorn seed, the following pseudo-orthotenic lines were found:
See Figure Three (below) for a drawing of these six (6) pseudo-orthotenic lines.In addition, there were fifteen (15) lines of (three) 3 points each, but these were considered coincidental since three-point lines were considered coincidental in the actual study and ignored.
In addition to this, twenty (20) seeds lay outside the perimeters of any lines, three-point or more, as compared to one (l) single flag on the actual map, which had failed to fit onto a line.
If we discount the fifteen (15) lines of three (3) points each on the pseudo-orthotenic map, then sixty-five (65) seeds out of ninety-two (92) failed to lie on any "meaningful" line, as compared to the one (1) single flag denoting a paranormal event which failed to fit into a line on the study's map.The above statistics prove without doubt that the actual study, which had produced a total of twenty-three (23) meaningful lines, represented a phenomenon which lay beyond chance or coincidence.
INTERSECTION POINTS AS RELATED TO STUDY:A comparison of intersection points on the pseudo-orthotenic map and the actual study map also yielded interesting results.On the random map, there were twelve (12) points of intersection, that is, where one line crossed another line at one of the flagged locations.Only three of these intersection points occurred at points where lines of 4 or more points crossed each other.On the actual study map, however, intersections of the sixteen (16 ) major lines of ufological significance were found at thirty (30) points.
Of these, twenty (20) were termed "double" intersections, that is, where one line intersected another line at a plotted location.Four (4) were sites of landings and/or abduction scenarios, eight (8) were sites of CE IIs and IIIs, three (3) were locations of alleged entity sightings, three (3) were sites of the special group, DIPS, one (1) was a site of a paranormal event, and one (l) was an ancient Indian ritual site.There were also seven (7) sites at which three lines intersected each other.Of these, one (l) was a landing site, two (2) were CEs, three (3) were paranormal events, and one (l) was the triple IFO intersection point discussed above in the text, where Venus had been described as a flaming orb which repeatedly zoomed toward the witness' home.
There were also three (3) instances where four lines intersected each other.Those three instances represent the following two close encounters in Temple City (Reference 18) and the black object viewed over a Burbank freeway, which was described in a recent MUFON UFO JOURNAL (Reference 19).
In view of the fact that Aime Michel, in his original orthotenic study, theorized that sightings of particular interest, i.e., cloud cigars, were seen at the intersections of straight lines, one might speculate that the multi-line intersection points described above might indicate sites on the earth where the flow of the (hypothetical) unidentified earth energy is particularly strong.
This study is a preliminary one, based on only a fraction of cases in this area suitable for plotting.Further study might strengthen the findings and add credence to some of the hypotheses and speculations mentioned in the text.It is doubtful whether further study of Southern California sightings would weaken or disprove the conclusions of this study, however, as the results seem to give striking evidence that a straight-line phenomenon related to UFO reports exists in Southern California.
SUMMARY: Reviewing the total study in its entirety, including the following results were found:
AN ADDED SPECULATION:
Acting on various information in UFO literature, some of which is scientific theorizing (Reference 20), and some apparently intuitional (Reference 21), I speculate that the hypothetical energy apparently emanating along orthotenic and ley lines might be gravitic in nature.It is further speculated that UFO sightings and other unusual events associated with these "lines of energy" might manifest at times of greater gravitational pull, due for example to the closer passages of Mars (a planet of greater relative density than earth and of high iron content), and possibly also the influence of other astronomical bodies in their closer conjunctions with the earth.
The methodology used in this study is a simple one, which can be employed by any investigator or researcher with a backlog of close encounter cases, UFO landings, and entity reports, and who has enough interest in the straight-line phenomenon to devote sufficient time and energy to suchstudy.Results from other researchers are eagerly awaited, as lines discovered mightconnect with lines found by others in their own localities.
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